The use of AND, OR, and NOT
The use of "OR"
Music OR download
Any of the words
Default for many search engines
- results may have relevance ranking
Music (50,000 hits) - Download (100,000 hits) ⇒ All records 120,000 hits
(Why not 150,000? some overlap!)
The use of "AND"
Music AND download
Every record MUST have both terms
Music (50,000 hits) - Download (100,000 hits) ⇒ AND results 30,000 hits
Music AND download
The use of "NOT"
Music NOT download
Avoid using - use AND/OR in 'nested searches'
Can leave out best articles/books/sites
If you say Music NOT download and the we site says "This is true of traditional sites but not download sites"
You've missed the perfect article
More complex searches save time.
Usually use "" around phrases like "music industry"
Use () around search elements that rely or 'act on' on one another - these are called NESTED
Complex searches cont.
"music industry" OR musicians OR songwriters ⇒ If you want ANY of the 3 terms - don't care which one(s).
You've saved yourself from doing three separate searches
"music industry" OR musicians OR songwriters
Internet OR web
Example: ("music industry" OR musicians OR songwriters) AND (internet OR web)
Yellow is the result. Look at overlap.This would be the same. Results over and over
You see articles once not 5-10 times
("music industry" OR musicians OR songwriters) AND (internet OR web)
This is equivalent of:
"music industry" and internet
"music industry" and web
Musicians and internet
Musicians and web
Songwriters and internet
Songwriters and web
Now multiply it by 6-10 databases
Truncator is usually a symbol * or ? or #
It will save you TIME
Music* stands for: Music, Musicians, Musical, Musically, etc.
Any word that starts with music!!
(Careful not to use it on all worlds - cat* would give you HUNDREDS or words - category, caterpillar, catch, etc.)
In the middle of words you MAY be allowed to use a symbol to stand for a letter or letters - check each database
Colo*r could stand for color or colour
wom*n could stand for women or woman
Save Time and Effort
Start using these until you are comfortable it takes practice!!